-- FROM AFONDO MAGAZINE --
Posidonia Oceanica meadows. The aquatic plant of the Posidoniaceae family is endemic to the Mediterranean.
Posidonia is the foundation of marine ecosystems. It is a priority habitat and
fundamental to the ecological balance of the seas. Recent research has established
a new scientific method for its detection, classification and volume estimation.
Simrad Spain proposes the use of hydroacoustic technology for this purpose.
Why is posidonia vital to the marine ecosystem?
The grass meadow is a "climax community" representing the highest level of development
and complexity that a marine ecosystem can reach. Posidonia in coastal ecosystems
plays a major role for several reasons:
- Thanks to its leaf development, the environment frees up to 20 liters of oxygen per day and per m2 of meadow
- It produces and exports biomass both to surrounding ecosystems and to greater depths
- It provides shelter and breeding grounds for many fish, cephalopods, bivalves, gastropods, echinoderms and tunicates
- It consolidates the seafloor to help offset costs and excessive sediment transport due to coastal currents
- It acts as a barrier, attenuating the force of currents and waves and thus preventing coastal erosion
- It dampens the waves through the layer of dead leaves deposited on the beaches, which protects against erosion, especially during winter storms
The disappearance of grasslands has negative effects not only on the micro-ecosystem
itself but also on linked ecosystems; just think that the loss of a single meter
of grassland can lead to the disappearance of several meters of beach due to erosion.
Furthermore, regression of grasslands involves a loss of biodiversity and deterioration
of water quality.
The research on Oceanic Posidonia has seen a major boom in recent years. The
importance of the flora in the marine ecosystem balance has become obvious and is
beyond question. Among the underwater flora of our environment the Posidonia Oceanica
is of special importance. It is a species that has a powerful attraction to be endemic
to the Mediterranean and the key to ensuring biodiversity of the seabed. It is subject
to many threats, given the increase in human activities such as chemical spills,
discharge of brine from desalination plants, construction of port infrastructure
and indiscriminate trawling. In addition, other non-human factors such as the encroachment
of invasive species to the Posidonia also pose a threat to their survival. We must
consider the slow processes of growth and recovery of a damaged area. It is estimated
that the Posidonia extends through the meadows at the rate of one centimeter per
year, so if you try to retrieve a square foot, it would take a century to achieve
Scientific studies by hydroacoustic systems
The three technologies, wide swath bathymetry, side scan sonar and single beam echosounder working simultaneously. Using a GeoAcoustics GeoSwath Plus makes the use of a separate side scan sonar obsolete as it acquires geo-referenced side scan data.
Until recently, scientists have used methodologies based on diving and capturing
video images in their study areas. Current technology has improved the qualitative
and quantitative research capabilities, and the application of different hydro acoustic
detection systems provides a variety of information. Documents published by the
"European Acoustics Association”, highlighted the excellent results obtained in
detecting and classifying seabed vegetation by combined application of acoustic
methods. They combined a single beam echosounder, which enables classification of
the seafloor and its vegetation, a multi-beam sonar, which generates micro-relief,
and a side scan sonar, imaging the seafloor reflectivity and thus enabling the spatial
classification of seafloor types and vegetation. The data from these systems are
merged and processed, resulting in 3D images of the same quality and precision as
found in the field of biomedicine. Quantitatively speaking, this technology can
work simultaneously with oceanographic parameters. All this information is linked
to the presence and quantity of Posidonia. As for the quantitative method, prospecting
new technologies allow a wide area of study while minimizing data collection time.
Thanks to the digital storage of all data acquired during the survey, one can make
historical databases that allow monitoring of the expansion or reduction in the
length of the field of underwater flora. You can also study how quality varies over
time by comparing contemporary data with the previous sampling. Many authors emphasize
the new possibilities opened by the combined application of different acoustic systems.
Each of the systems available, depending on their features, offers various types
of information about the flora.
KONGSBERG and Simrad systems applied to new methodologies
In an experiment conducted in France by the company in collaboration with TS
SEMANTIC GESMA, for defence purposes, the aim was to detect mines hidden in the
vegetation. Several systems were combined to cross-correlate the signals from different
types of bottoms (sand with and without plants, rocks) with samples obtained at
different depths and with different settings of the systems (transmit power and
pulse length between them). Acoustic systems combined in this test were:
- A side scan sonar
- The GeoAcoustics shallow water wide swath bathymetry system GeoSwath Plus, which simultaneously acquires bathymetry with a swath width of 12 times the water depth and geo-referenced side scan data
- The scientific high-precision echosounder Simrad EK60
The side scan sonar shows the reflectivity of the seafloor and discriminates
areas where there are plants or sand. The GeoSwath Plus system provides bathymetry
and geo-referenced side scan data. Both datasets can be merged to generate a three
dimensional image representing the bathymetry and backscatter of the seafloor. This
unique feature allows us to correlate the three-dimensional data with the location
and extent of Posidonia meadow areas. The scientific probe records the acoustic
pulses to generate a profile of the seafloor. These data are recorded simultaneously
with the D-GPS position. Since the sandy areas and vegetation meadows provide different
signatures, by applying the algorithm analysis, it discriminates between different
types of seafloor. In this first phase, it detects the presence of Posidonia. In
that case the system estimates its height and abundance. The presence of Posidonia
is limited to the depth to which sunlight reaches, the photic zone, so most of these
studies are conducted in shallow water. This combined with the high resolution of
the acoustic systems, generates maps that resemble virtual reality. This methodological
concept corroborates that the innovations technology offers give high performance
and ensure scientists new and improved ways to study. Moreover, these technologies
enable the direct study of large areas with very high resolution, whereas the traditional
approach of visual sampling was limited to very small zone and therefore the use
of statistical extrapolation.
This methodology provides several advantages: the mappings are very precise and
there is no need to repeat the survey again and again to compare results. Another
advantage is that it significantly reduces the costs of underwater inspections:
divers, cameras, videos, etc. A direct scientific application is the fact that the
concentration of plants has civil and military uses: the plants can hide mines placed
on the seafloor and also alter the performance of the sensors used for detection
(especially the laminaria species).
C. Noel, C. Viala, M. Coquet (of Sematic TS), B. Zerr (DGA / GESMA) and T. Perrot
(CEVA) of France. Acoustic data fusion devoted to underwater vegetation mapping.
(Acoustics June 29-July 4 2008.Paris) 6463-6466 pp.
N. I Alesund.Marzo Hogskolen Kjerstad of 1996. Undervannsakustikk for Maritime studier.54-58
A.C. Molero and R. Carbó. Acústica.CSIC Institute. September 1997.
Acoustics detection methods for Gelidium seaweed. Boleting Institute
Spanish Oceanography. 15 (1-4) 1999. Pp 325-336.
bring these technologies