It is very important to use transponders with strong enough output source level to obtain the highest S/N ratio and thereby also the best SSBL accuracy.
Two different product lines
We presently offer two different lines of Acoustic underwater positioning and navigation systems:
- HiPAP family - High precision acoustic positioning system
- µPAP - Small and portable acoustic positioning system
Principles for measurements & calculations
Our family of underwater positioning and navigation systems uses three different principles for measurements and calculations (SSBL, LBL and MULBL). Any combination of the three principles secures
flexibility as well as a high degree of redundancy and accuracy.
SSBL - Super Short Base Line
The calculation of positioning is based on range and on vertical and horizontal angle measurements, from a single multi element transducer. The system provides three-dimensional transponder positions
relative to the vessel. The HiPAP (High Precision Acoustic Positioning) systems is a leader within the use of these principles.
SBL - Short Base Line
The calculation of position is based on range, and vertical and horizontal angle measurements from a minimum of three hull mounted transducers. The baselines are between transducers on the vessel. A transponder is positioned relative to the vessel. KONGSBERG's SSBL system accuracy surpasses clearly the performances of this principle, so why have 3 or more hull penetrations for transducers when 1 is enough?
LBL - Long Base Line
The calculation of position is based on range measurements only. The ROV, a subsea module and the vessel are positioned relative to a calibrated array of subsea transponders.
MULBL - Multi-User Long Base Line
Multi-User Long Base Line (MULBL) hydroacoustic positioning system. Several individual vessels and Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) units can now position themselves using the same seabed transponder array.
Operating Station & acoustic protocol
Acoustic Positioning Operating Station - APOS
The HiPAP and µPAP systems are operated from the operator friendly and well proven APOS, which is a Windows based software application. HiPAP can be operated from one single APOS station or from a
wide number of APOS operator stations connected in a network.
Cymbal – the new acoustic protocol
Todays HiPAP systems can use both Continuous Wave (FSK) and Cymbal acoustic protocols. Cymbal utilises wideband Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) signals. The Cymbal protocol transmits more energy into the water and thus has longer range, and together with uniqueness coding makes a number of new HiPAP features available.
Hydroacoustic positioning principles
A hydroacoustic positioning system consists of both a transmitter (transducer) and a receiver (transponder). A signal (pulse) is sent from the transducer, and is aimed towards the seabed transponder.
This pulse activates the transponder, which responds immediately to the vessel transducer. The transducer, with corresponding electronics, calculates an accurate position of the transponder relative to